Author: toto

The highly infectious Delta COVID variant is triggering lock-downs across the country. We look at what help is available and how you can get it.

Support for you

COVID-19 disaster payment

The COVID-19 disaster payment is available to eligible workers who can’t attend work or who have lost income because of a lockdown and don’t have access to appropriate paid leave entitlements. And, it only applies from the eighth day of lockdown. That is, there is nothing you can claim for the first week of a lockdown.

The payment amount depends on how many hours of work you have lost in the lockdown period (week).

Applications for the disaster payment need to be made weekly.


The payment is available if you are not earning an income or have lost work and you:

  • Are an Australian citizen, permanent resident or temporary visa holder who has the right to work in Australia, and
  • Are aged 17 years or over, and
  • Can’t attend work and lost income on or after day 8 of a COVID-19 lockdown, and
  • Don’t have access to appropriate paid leave entitlements through your employer (other than annual leave), and
  • Are not getting an income support payment, a state or territory pandemic payment, Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment or state small business payment for the same period.

Until recently, a liquid assets test applied that meant that if you had more than $10,000, you could not receive the payment. However, the Prime Minster has stated that this test will be lifted from Thursday, 8 July 2021.

During Victoria’s lockdown, 75,410 claims were made for the disaster payment, 57,730 were granted. In NSW, over 67,000 residents have applied for the payment to date.

The disaster payment is only accessible if the hotspot triggering the lockdown lasts more than 7 days as declared by the Chief Medical Officer (you can find the listing here).

Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment

The Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment of $1,500 for each 14 day period is for those who have been advised by the health authorities to self-isolate or quarantine because:

  • You have coronavirus (COVID-19)
  • You’ve been in close contact with a person who has COVID-19
  • You care for a child, 16 years or under, who has COVID-19
  • You care for a child, 16 years or under, who’s been in close contact with a person who has COVID-19.

The payment might also be accessible if you are a carer for someone impacted.

Eligibility for this disaster payment is very similar except that you need to use any appropriate leave entitlements if it is available to you (for example, pandemic sick leave, personal leave or carer leave).


Support for Business


New South Wales

The NSW Government has announced new grants of up to $10,000 for businesses adversely impacted by the recent COVID-19 lockdowns. Eligibility for the grant is streamed into general business, and hospitality and tourism.

The value of the grant is determined by the impact of the lockdown on your turnover. Your business will need to prove a decline in turnover across a minimum 2 week period after the commencement of the major restrictions.

The grant is limited to businesses (including sole traders) with:

  • A NSW registered ABN or able to demonstrate they are physically located and primarily operating in NSW; and
  • Annual turnover of more than $75,000 for the year ending 30 June 2020; but
  • Below the NSW Government 2020-21 payroll tax threshold of $1.2m as at 1 July 2020; with
  • Fewer than 20 full time equivalent employees

The Hospitality & Tourism COVID-19 Support grant is limited to tourism or hospitality businesses with:

  • A NSW registered ABN or able to demonstrate they are physically located and primarily operating in NSW; and
  • Annual turnover of more than $75,000 for the year ending 30 June 2020; and
  • An annual Australian wages bill below $10m as at 1 July 2020.

Applications for the grant open in late July.

Northern Territory

The Territory Business Lockdown Payment Program provides a payment of $1,000 to eligible Territory enterprises with less than 20 full time equivalent staff.  Applications close on 16 July 2021.


A Small Business COVID-19 Adaption Grant of between $2,000 and $10,000 is available to eligible regional Queensland businesses. The grant requires your business to have suffered a decline in turnover of at least 30% because of COVID-19 for at least one month since 23 March 2020. The grant is accessible to businesses with less than 20 staff.



Grants and other business support programs are available targeting specific industries such as live events, hospitality, and the employment of priority jobseekers. See Business Victoria.

Western Australia

A second round of Small Business Lockdown Assistance Grants of $3,000 are available to eligible businesses in Perth, Peel and regional WA impacted by recent lockdowns. Applications are not yet open but you can register for updates. Specific industry assistance is also available.

Direct grants and funding to South Australian and ACT businesses are applicable when extended lock-downs are imposed.


Business in a post pandemic environment

Countries that have experienced the worst of the pandemic give Australian businesses an insight into what to expect in a post-lockdown environment.

Australia, like New Zealand, has managed COVID-19 on an elimination basis. That is, lockdowns and border closures to keep the virus out. And, it has worked comparatively well with New Zealand suffering 26 deaths (0.5 per 100,000 people) and Australia 910 (3.7 per 100,000), compared to the UK with over 128,000 deaths (191 per 100,000), India over 400,000 (29.8 per 100,000), Brazil over 500,000 (250.4 per 100,000), and the United States over 600,000 (184.3 per 100,000).

But the flip side of a COVID-19 elimination strategy is a slow vaccine rollout – not only are global vaccine supplies predominantly directed to first world nations with higher mortality rates but vaccination reticence has taken hold (the “I’ll wait and see what happens” mentality). Deciding whether to get a vaccination (and making the appointment) is easy to put off when your life, and the well-being of those around you, is not in danger. We saw this psychology at play in Sydney and Melbourne when vaccination rates increased in response to the spread of the Delta variant.

While all of this might not have a direct impact on businesses, it does impact on the timing of the recently announced National Plan to transition Australia’s COVID response, and this plan will determine what the business environment will be like over the coming year.

The National Plan has signalled a policy shift from our current focus on COVID infection rates, to two new key determinants – vaccination and hospitalisation rates.

At present, Australia has administered 33 vaccination doses per 100 people. New Zealand is just over 26 doses per 100 utilising Pfizer and the recently approved Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, and Japan over 42 doses per 100.

Australia will pursue an elimination (or ‘double doughnut’) strategy until vaccination rates rise to a level where the risk of hospitalisation and death from the virus is relatively low. However, we don’t know what these thresholds look like at present with the Government and COVID-19 Task Force yet to make its recommendations.

Australia cannot move from an elimination strategy to ‘living with COVID’ in a few months without unacceptable hospitalisation and death rates – for example, the UK is moving to no restrictions despite over 160 people dying of COVID and just under 2,500 hospitalised in the last 7 days.

The National Plan identifies four stages and the actions of each of those stages. In brief:

  1. Phase 1 – Current strategy
  2. Phase 2 – Post vaccination phase – eased restrictions for those who have been vaccinated and lock-downs only when hospitalisation rates spike
  3. Phase 3 – Consolidation phase – no lockdowns and pursuit of a ‘vaccination passport’ concept where those who are vaccinated can travel freely domestically, and travel bubbles extended to more countries.
  4. Final phase – the living with the virus stage with uncapped inbound arrivals including accepting non-vaccinated international travellers if they pass a pre and post arrival COVID test.

Data is only just emerging on the impact of vaccination rates on hospitalisations and death rates, but only a small number of countries have enough of their populations vaccinated to provide a reliable sample – Israel (120 doses per 100 people), the UK (119 per 100) and the US (100 per 100). Even when the Australian vaccination targets are confirmed, we should expect these phases to move over time if hospitalisations increase beyond acceptable levels and if new and deeper data suggests a change in tack (like with the rollout of the AstraZeneca vaccine). In addition, it is likely that the States and Territories will continue to have the final say on what is acceptable. All of this means that while we will have a National Plan, business should remain vigilant and prepare for a potentially longer transition period than what is announced.

The National Plan’s impact on business

The economic impact of COVID-19 is unlike any other, with some businesses suffering a fatal blow while others have benefited. COVID’s impact varies sector by sector and region by region as we bounce from one set of operating conditions to another depending on the Government’s response to outbreaks.

Cashflow is a dominant concern with ABS data showing a decline in the number of businesses expecting an increase in revenue between February (27%) and July 2021 (18%).

The National Plan will impact differently on different sectors and it will be important for business operators to understand the potential impact on them at each phase.

  • Phase 1 – Be prepared for further ad-hoc lockdowns and restrictions
  • Map the impact of restrictions on your business, your cashflow and your team and what you will need to survive. Understand whether it is worth trading, the cost of trading and the potential of hibernating.
  • Model contingency scenarios and understand the best available action.
  • Phase 2 – taking advantage of eased restrictions
  • Lock-in any COVID gains – this might be keeping or adapting any new services, building on new technologies, or nurturing a database of new customers (while protecting your relationship with your existing customers). Business has changed, understand what has changed and how you can benefit from these changes.
  • Phase 3 – no lockdowns and returning travel
  • Understand what your customer base will look like when restrictions ease? If your business benefited from COVID, is there a potential to be detrimentally impacted when your customers have greater choice. If eased restrictions open new or returning opportunities, what can you do to drive this business to you?

COVID impacts differently depending on the business, the sector, and geographic location. There is no one size fits all approach to surviving and thriving. If you would like us to review your businesses circumstances and ensure you have the depth of information you need to make the right decisions, please contact us.


6 Member SMSFs – the issues and opportunities



From 1 July 2021, the maximum number of members a Self Managed Super Fund can have increased from four to six. Why would you have a fund with six members and what are the implications?

Recently enacted laws increased the maximum number of allowable members in an SMSF and small APRA fund from four to six.

Currently, over 70% of SMSFs have just two members and those with four members represent only 4% of the SMSF population. The use of six member funds is likely to be small but adds additional choice and flexibility.

Family groups

Six member funds provide family groups with a vehicle for controlling superannuation savings and investment strategies. For families with more than four members, previously the only real option was to create two SMSFs (incurring extra costs) or place their superannuation in a large fund.

A larger fund also offers a level of protection if a fund member is travelling overseas for a prolonged period of time. The residency rules require, amongst other things, 50% of members measured by market value to be in Australia.

Estate planning

Estate planning is a benefit of the new laws particularly tax-effective intergenerational wealth transfer as the assets of a fund generally are not part of the estate.  Take the example of a family business that holds the commercial property of the business in their family SMSF. If the parents die, the children might keep running the business and maintain the commercial property within the SMSF as an asset. Holding assets within the SMSF also provides a level of asst protection from creditors.

The problem areas

  • Investment decisions within a fund – Problems can occur when members have different investment needs, for example parents might be closer to retirement while the children are focussed on the longer term. The investment strategy of the fund may not meet everyone’s requirements.
  • Disputes – the more members in a fund the greater the potential for disputes. For those with legal capacity to be a trustee (18 or over), the rules relating to the appointment and dismissal of trustees, voting rights and meetings need to be clear.
  • What happens when a member dies – steps need to be taken to ensure that when a member of the fund dies, their wishes are respected. For example, appointing a legal personal representative as trustee, reversionary pensions or binding death nominations.

Who cannot have a six member fund?

Not all SMSFs will have the option to allow six members because in some instances, the number of individual trustees that a trust can have is limited to less than five or six trustees by State legislation (Queensland for example). In these cases, fund members might opt to use a corporate trustee.

Administrative impact on an SMSF

The change from four to six members updates the definition of an SMSF, and as a result, has a practical impacts across other Acts and Regulations.

Sign-off requirements for an SMSF’s accounts and financial statements will change. Currently, if an SMSF has more than one director member, its accounts and statements must be signed by at least two members in their capacity as individual trustee or as a director of a corporate trustee. As there cannot be more than four members of an SMSF under the current rules, these requirements ensure that all members sign the accounts and statements of SMSFs with one or two members. For SMSFs with three or four members, at least half of the members must sign its accounts and statements for an income year. Under the updated requirements, an SMSF with one or two directors or individual trustees must have its accounts and statements signed by all of those directors or trustees. For all other SMSFs (that is, those with between three and six directors or trustees), the accounts and statements of the SMSF must be signed by at least half of the directors or individual trustees.

New laws target sharing economy platforms

In an attempt to reign in undeclared income, proposed new laws will require platform providers in the sharing economy to report all transactions through their platforms.

Traditional employment models have shifted in favour of more flexible options including contracting, self-employment and use of labour hire. Consumers are increasingly paying to ‘use’ rather than ‘own’ assets, creating new income opportunities for the owners of assets – like AirBNB. And, the Government believes they are missing out on tax revenues from these payments – income tax from income earned, GST on ride sharing (because the ATO considers all ride sharing a taxi service and as a result GST applies), and capital gains tax on the sale of property used to earn income, etc.

While data matching programs have targeted sharing platforms previously, the proposed laws provide a structured and consistent framework to recognise all revenue earned in Australia through these platforms.

The laws target electronic platforms capturing those that act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers, to more complex arrangements where the platform operator assumes much of the inherent risk in the transaction between the buyer and the seller, play a quality assurance role, and ensure a seamless experience for the buyer and seller. The laws do not rely on the platform processing payments and will reach to those who use third party payment providers.

If implemented, the laws will apply to ride sharing and accommodation services from 1 July 2022, and all other services from 1 July 2023.

If you can’t work because you or someone in your household is impacted by COVID-19, there is support available, but it comes with fairly strict eligibility criteria. There are two payments accessible to individuals: The COVID -19 Disaster Payment; and the Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment. Both payments are accessible through Services Australia and applications can be made through your MyGov account if you have created and linked a Centrelink account.



COVID-19 Disaster payments

Contrary to news reports, the COVID-19 disaster payment is not accessible to “everyone” in lockdown – strict eligibility rules apply.

The COVID-19 disaster payment is available to eligible workers who can’t attend work or who have lost income because of a lockdown and don’t have access to paid leave entitlements.  And, it only applies from the eighth day of lockdown. That is, there is nothing you can claim for the first week of a lockdown.

What’s a hotspot?

The disaster payment is only accessible if the hotspot triggering the lockdown lasts more than 7 days as declared by the Chief Medical Officer (you can find the listing here). In Sydney’s case, the City of Sydney, Waverley, Woollahra, Bayside, Canada Bay, Inner West and Randwick were Commonwealth declared hotspots from 23 June 2021 with the hotspot extended until 2 July 2021 – meaning that the COVID-19 disaster payment is available to eligible workers in those areas from 1 July 2021. Greater Sydney was declared a hotspot from 26 June 2021.

You need to be living or working in a hotspot for it to apply to you.

Claim periods apply. For Melbourne’s lockdown for example, the disaster payment was accessible from 4 June until 10 June 2021, and those impacted have until 2 July 2021 to claim the disaster payment for the applicable lockdown period.

How much is the payment?

The COVID-19 disaster payment depends on how many hours of work you have lost in the lockdown period.

The payment applies to each relevant period of lockdown and is taxable (you will need to declare it in your income tax return).

Are you eligible for the COVID-19 disaster payment?

The COVID-19 disaster payment is emergency relief. It is available if you:

  • Are an Australian citizen, permanent resident or temporary visa holder who has the right to work in Australia, and
  • Are aged 17 years or over, and
  • Can’t attend work and lost income on or after day 8 of a COVID-19 lockdown, and
  • Don’t have access to appropriate paid leave entitlements through your employer, and
  • Are not getting an income support payment, a state or territory pandemic payment, Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment or state small business payment for the same period.

In addition, you need to declare that you do not have liquid assets of more than $10,000.

Legislation passed Parliament last week retrospectively enabling the disaster payments to people who lost work because of COVID-19 lockdowns in Melbourne and enabling future payments to 30 June 2022.


Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment

The Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment is for those who have been advised by their relevant health authority to self-isolate or quarantine because:

  • you have coronavirus (COVID-19)
  • you’ve been in close contact with a person who has COVID-19
  • you care for a child, 16 years or under, who has COVID-19
  • you care for a child, 16 years or under, who’s been in close contact with a person who has COVID-19.

The payment might also be accessible if you are a carer for someone impacted.

How much is the payment?

The payment is $1,500 for each 14 day period you are advised to self-isolate or quarantine. If you are a couple, you both can claim this payment if you meet the eligibility criteria.

Are you eligible for the Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment?

The Pandemic Leave Disaster Payment is emergency relief. It is available if you:

  • Are an Australian citizen, permanent resident or temporary visa holder who has the right to work in Australia, and
  • Are aged 17 years or over, and
  • Are unable to go to work and earn an income, and
  • Do not have appropriate leave entitlements, including pandemic sick leave, personal leave or carers leave, and
  • Are not getting any income support payment, ABSTUDY Living Allowance, Paid parental leave or Dad and Partner Pay.

The payment is taxable and you will need to declare it in your income tax return.

If you are uncertain of your eligibility, talk to Services Australia. If you are concerned about the impact of disaster relief payments on you, talk to your adviser.

The material and contents provided in this publication are informative in nature only.  It is not intended to be advice and you should not act specifically on the basis of this information alone.  If expert assistance is required, professional advice should be obtained.


Work from home expenses under scrutiny & the perils of browsing Facebook

If you worked from home during lockdown and spent money on work related items that were not reimbursed by your business, you might be able to claim some of these expenses as a deduction – but not everything you purchase can be claimed.

The ATO has stated that it is looking very closely at work related deductions that are being claimed. If you are claiming your expenses, there are three methods you can use:

  • An 80 cents per hour short cut method (you will need to have evidence of hours worked like a timesheet or diary)
  • The 52 cents per hour method (which excludes phone, internet, or the decline in value of equipment which are all claimed separately), or
  • The actual expenses method.

The ATO is particularly interested in those using the ‘actual expenses’ method. To be able to claim a work related expense, it needs to be directly related to the work you do and how you earn your income. The ATO has highlighted four ineligible expenses that are being claimed:

  • Personal expenses such as coffee, tea and toilet paper
  • Expenses related to a child’s education, such as online learning courses or laptops
  • Claiming large expenses up-front (instead of claiming depreciation for assets), and
  • Occupancy expenses such as rent, mortgage interest, property insurance, and land taxes and rates, that cannot generally be claimed by employees working from home.

A recent case before the AAT shows how determined the ATO is to crackdown on work related deductions being claimed where there is not a satisfactory nexus between the expense being claimed and the taxpayer’s work. In this case, the taxpayer had claimed car and clothing expenses, and home internet and mobile phone costs. The ATO conceded the car costs but on a reduced deduction. When it came to clothing expenses the ATO conceded that a deduction could be claimed for gloves and a beanie on the basis that the taxpayer worked in cold conditions and that these were protective clothing needed for the job. However, the AAT refused to allow a deduction for the cost of a pair of socks on the basis that they were not protective in nature in their own right – yes, it really does get this detailed.

The taxpayer had also claimed 100% of his home internet expenses but the ATO reviewed this claim and reduced the deductible amount to $50 – a record of the family’s home internet usage demonstrated the internet was used to browse Facebook amongst other non-work related sites.

One of the other issues to come out of this case was the importance of record keeping. If you are going to claim work related expenses, then ensure you have the records to prove your claim.



Am I taxed on an insurance payout?

Australia has had its fair share of disasters over the last few years – drought, bushfires and floods – that have ramped up the volume of insurance claims. Most people would assume that if and when they need to claim on their insurance, the insurance payout covers the damage and is not income assessed for tax purposes – but this is not always the case.

Insurance payouts for damaged or destroyed personal items are generally not taxed. For example, any insurance payout you receive for your family home won’t necessarily be taxed. But, the rules are different if you have used your home to produce an income, for example, you have used part of your home as a home business or you have rented out part of your home.

The rules are also different if the item is a personal asset costing more than $10,000 or if the asset is a collectible that cost more than $500. Where the insurance proceeds exceed the original cost of the asset, that is, the asset appreciated in value, then capital gains tax might apply.

And, if the asset damaged is related to a business or an income producing asset like a rental property, the rules are also different.

Business premises, trading stock and depreciating assets

For businesses that have had trading stock damaged or destroyed, any insurance payout is taxable. For example, the payouts on claims coming through from the enforced lockdowns for spoiled perishable stock would need to be included in the business’s tax return. This is because the insurance premiums would have been claimed by the business as an expense. It is just a question of how the insurance is taxed.

If your business premises are damaged and the insurance covers repairs, then the amount you receive is generally taxed as income if you can claim a deduction for the repair costs. Where the premises are damaged or destroyed, then we’ll need to work with you to identify if you have made a taxable gain or loss.

When it comes to depreciating assets like machinery, then it starts getting more complex. In general, if the insurance payout exceeds the written down value, then the payout is included in the business’s assessable income, and if less, you can claim a deduction for the difference. However, there are also special rules for work cars, small businesses, and where a replacement item is purchased.

Rental properties

A rental property is an income producing asset and, in most cases, the cost of insurance policies relating to the property would have been claimed as an expense. For example, if you receive a payout for your rental property as a result of a disaster, generally, you will need to include at least part of this amount as income in your tax return. This could include insurance payouts for loss of rental income, repairs, replacements of destroyed assets, or money received from a relief fund.

The treatment of the insurance proceeds depends on what the payout is for, how the insurance is used, and whether the rental property was vacant or in use.

A recent case before the Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT) shows how tricky this area of the tax rules can be. In this case, the taxpayer initially received insurance proceeds of $24,000 for lost rental income after their property sustained storm and flood damage. The taxpayer had declared this amount as income.  All good so far.

Then, the taxpayer received an additional $250,000 from the insurer with the payment described as “in consideration of the taxpayer releasing the insurer from all liability past, present and future under the insurance policy”. The taxpayer did not believe this money was for him to repair his property so did not claim it in his tax return. But, he did claim a deduction for repair costs totalling $130,000 in two income years.

The ATO subsequently audited the taxpayer and issued an assessment for the full $250,000. The AAT agreed with the ATO even though the taxpayer had only claimed $130,000 in repairs. It’s possible this case will go to appeal but it serves as a warning that any lump sum payouts need to be very carefully assessed and dealt with.

If you have been impacted by a disaster and are uncertain of how any insurance proceeds will be taxed, please talk to us and we can work with you to help you understand your position.



What changes on 1 July 2021?

Super guarantee rate increase to 10%

On 1 July 2021, the Superannuation Guarantee (SG) rate will rise from 9.5% to 10% – the first rise since 2014. It will then steadily increase each year until it reaches 12% on 1 July 2025.

The 0.5% increase does not mean that everyone gets an automatic pay increase, this will depend on your employment agreement. If your employment agreement states you are paid on a ‘total remuneration’ basis (base plus SG and any other allowances), then your take home pay might be reduced by 0.5%. That is, a greater percentage of your total remuneration will be directed to your superannuation fund. For those paid a rate plus superannuation, then your take home pay will remain the same, but your superannuation fund will benefit from the increase. If you are used to annual increases, the 0.5% increase might simply be absorbed into your remuneration review.

Employers will need to ensure that they pay the correct SG amount in the new financial year to avoid the superannuation guarantee charge. Where employee salaries are paid at a point other than the first day of the month, ensure the calculations are correct across the month (i.e., for staff paid on the 15th of the month they are paid the correct SG rate for June and July in their pay and not just the June rate).

Superannuation salary packaging arrangements will also need to be reviewed – employers should ensure that the calculations are correct and the SG rate increase flows through.

New stapled superannuation employer obligations for new staff

Currently, when an employer hires a new staff member, the employee is provided with a Choice of Fund form to identify where they want their superannuation to be directed. If the employee does not identify a fund, the employer directs their superannuation into a default fund.

When someone has multiple funds, it often erodes their balance through unnecessary fees and often insurance. And, as at 30 June 2020, there was $13.8 billion of lost and unclaimed superannuation in accounts across Australia.

From 1 July 2021, where an employee does not identify a fund, legislation before Parliament will require the employer to link the employee to an existing superannuation fund. That is, an employee’s superannuation fund will become ‘stapled’ to them. An employer will not simply be able to set up a default fund, but instead will be required to request that the ATO identify the employee’s stapled fund. If the ATO confirms no other fund exists for the employee, contributions can be directed to the employer’s default fund or a fund specified under a workplace determination or an enterprise agreement (if the determination was made before 1 January 2021).

Legislation enabling this measure is currently before the Senate.

Indexation increases contribution caps and the transfer balance cap

Indexation ensures that the caps on superannuation that limit how much you can transfer into super and how much you hold in a tax-free retirement account, remain relevant by making pre-determined increases in line with inflation. To trigger indexation, the consumer price index (CPI) needed to reach 116.9. Australia reached 117.2 in December 2020 triggering increases to the contribution and transfer balance caps from 1 July 2021. The next increase will occur when a December quarter CPI reaches 123.75.

Concessional and non-concessional contribution caps

From 1 July 2021, the superannuation contribution caps will increase enabling you to contribute more to your superannuation fund (assuming you have not already reached your transfer balance cap).

The concessional contribution cap will increase from $25,000 to $27,500. Concessional contributions are contributions made into your super fund before tax such as superannuation guarantee or salary packaging.

The non-concessional cap will increase from $100,000 to $110,000. Non-concessional contributions are after tax contributions made into your super fund.

The bring forward rule enables those under the age of 65 to contribute three years’ worth of non-concessional contributions to your super in one year. From 1 July 2021, you will be able to contribute up to $330,000 in one year. Total superannuation balance rules will continue to apply. However, if you have utilised the bring forward rule in 2018-19 or 2019-20, then your contribution cap will not increase until the three year period has passed.

Transfer balance cap – why you will have a personal cap

The transfer balance cap (TBC), as the name suggests, limits how much money you can transfer into a tax-free retirement account. From 1 July 2021, the general TBC will increase from $1.6m to $1.7m but not everyone will benefit from the increase.

From 1 July 2021, there will not be a single cap that applies to everyone. Instead, every individual will have their own personal TBC of between $1.6 and $1.7 million, depending on their circumstances.

If your superannuation is in accumulation phase before 1 July 2021, that is, you have not started taking an income stream (pension), then your cap will be the fully indexed amount of $1.7m.

However, if you have started taking an income stream – you have retired or are transitioning to retirement – then your indexed TBC will be calculated proportionately based on the highest ever balance of your account between 1 July 2017 and 30 June 2021. The closer your account is to the $1.6m cap, the less impact indexation will have. For anyone who reached the $1.6m cap at any time between 1 July 2017 and 30 June 2021, indexation will not apply and your cap will continue to be $1.6m. For example, if you are transitioning to retirement and drawing a pension, and your highest ever balance in your retirement account was $1.2m, then indexation only applies to $400,000 (the $1.6m cap less your highest very balance). In this case, your new personal TBC will be $1,625,000 after indexation.

The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) will calculate your personal TBC based on the information lodged with them (this will be available from your myGov account linked to the ATO). If your superannuation is in retirement phase, it will be very important to ensure that your Transfer Balance Account compliance obligations are up to date. For Self-Managed Superannuation Funds (SMSFs), it is essential that you let us know about any changes that impact on your transfer balance account, for example if a member of your fund retires.

The total super balance caps to utilise the spouse contribution offset and the government co-contribution will also be lifted to $1.7m in line with indexation.

Minimum superannuation drawdown rates

The Government has announced an extension of the temporary reduction in superannuation minimum drawdown rates for a further year until 30 June 2022.

Single touch payroll reporting

Single touch payroll will apply to most businesses from 1 July 2021, this will include small businesses (those with 19 or fewer staff) and businesses with closely held employees (e.g., directors of family companies, salary and wages for family employees of businesses). No further extensions will be granted.

For employers with closely held employees, there are some concessions on how reporting is managed with the option to report one of three ways: reporting actual payments in real time, reporting actual payments quarterly or reporting a reasonable estimate quarterly. These concessions allow a level of flexibility in relation to determining and making payments to closely-held payees. However, if your business is impacted, it will be important to plan throughout the year to prevent problems occurring at year end.



Why are some businesses returning JobKeeper to the ATO?

Super Retail Group – owner of the Supercheap Auto, Rebel, BCF and Macpac brands – handed back $1.7 million in JobKeeper payments in January after releasing a trading update showing sales growth of 23% to December 2020. Toyota announced that it will return $18 million in JobKeeper payments after a record fourth quarter. And, Domino’s Pizza has also handed back $792,000 of JobKeeper payments.

Toyota, Super Retail Group, and Domino’s were not obliged to hand back JobKeeper. Under the rules at the time, the companies qualified to access the payment. However, Toyota CEO Matthew Callachor said,

“Like most businesses, Toyota faced an extremely uncertain future when the COVID-19 health crisis developed into an economic crisis …We claimed JobKeeper payments to help support the job security of almost 1,400 Toyota employees around Australia ….In the end, we were very fortunate to weather the storm better than most, so our management and board decided that returning JobKeeper payments was the right thing to do as a responsible corporate citizen.”

Domino’s Group CEO and Managing Director, Don Meij said, “We appreciate the availability and support of JobKeeper during a period of significant uncertainty. That period has passed, the assistance package has served its purpose, and we return it to Australian taxpayers with our thanks.”

Companies that received JobKeeper and subsequently paid dividends to shareholders and executive bonuses have come under particular scrutiny, not just by the regulators but by public opinion.


















The first phase of JobKeeper did not require business to prove that they had actually suffered a downturn in revenue, just have evidence turnover was likely to drop in a particular month or quarter. For many businesses, early trends indicated that the pandemic would have a devastating impact on revenue. Many also took action and prevented the trend entrenching by actioning plans to protect their workforce and revenue. The fact that business improved, does not impact on initial JobKeeper eligibility. In the first phase of JobKeeper, employers were not obliged to stop JobKeeper payments if trends improved.

Speaking at the Senate Select Committee on COVID-19, ATO Deputy Commissioner Jeremey Hirschhorn stated that the ATO rejected some $180 million in JobKeeper claims pre-issuance. Approximately, $340 million in overpayments have been identified. Of these, $50 million were honest mistakes and will not be clawed back where the payment had been passed on to the employee.

Where the ATO determines that JobKeeper overpayments need to be repaid, they will contact you and let you know the amount and how the repayment should be made. Administrative penalties generally will not apply unless there is evidence of a deliberate attempt to manipulate the circumstances to gain the payment.

Taxpayers can object to the ATO’s JobKeeper overpayment assessment. If you are contacted by the ATO, please contact us immediately for assistance and we will work with the ATO on your behalf.


COVID-19 Vaccinations and the Workplace

The first COVID-19 vaccination in Australia rolled out on 21 February 2021 preceded by a wave of protests. With the rollout, comes a thorny question for employers about individual rights, workplace health and safety, and vaccination enforcement.

The rollout, managed in phases, is expected to complete by the end of 2021 (you can check your eligibility here). While the Australian Government’s COVID-19 vaccination policy states that vaccination “is not mandatory and individuals may choose not to vaccinate”, this does not mean that there will not be punitive initiatives for those failing to vaccinate including proof of vaccination to move across borders.  Australia for example, already has a precedent with “No Jab, No Play” policies in place to access child care payments (the ability to object to vaccination on non-medical grounds was removed from 1 January 2016).
















There are currently no laws or public health orders in Australia that specifically enable employers to require their employees to be vaccinated against coronavirus. However, it is likely that in some circumstances an employer may require an employee to be vaccinated.

Can an employer require an employee to be vaccinated?

For most employers, probably not. The Fair Work Ombudsman, however, states that there are “limited circumstances where an employer may require their employees to be vaccinated.” These are:

  • The State or Territory Government enacts a public health order requiring the vaccination of workers (for example, in identified high-risk workplaces or industries).
  • An agreement or contract requires it – some employment agreements already require employees to be vaccinated and where these clauses exist, they will need to be reviewed to determine if they also apply to the COVID-19 vaccine.
  • A lawful and reasonable direction – employers are able to issue a direction for employees to be vaccinated but whether that direction is lawful and reasonable will be assessed on a case by case basis. It’s more likely a direction will be “reasonable” where, for example, there is an elevated risk such as border control and quarantine facilities, or where employees have contact with vulnerable people such as those working in health care or aged care.

If an employee refuses to be vaccinated on non-medical grounds in a workplace that requires it, standard protocols apply. That is, the employer will need to follow through with disciplinary action – there are no special provisions that enable suspensions or stand downs for employees who refuse to be vaccinated against COVID-19.

Can an employer require evidence of vaccination?

In general, an employer can only require evidence of vaccination if they have a lawful and reasonable reason to do so. Requesting access to medical records and storing data of an individual’s medical information will also have privacy implications (see the Office of the Information Commissioner for more details).

Your immunisation history is already accessible through your myGov account when it is linked to Medicare. The Express Plus Medicare app enables you to access this information on your phone.

More details are expected shortly on Australia’s “vaccine passport” that will enable the quick identification of an individual’s vaccination status. Israel’s “Green Pass” for example uses a simple QR code but there are already concerns that it is easily forged.

Can we require customers to be vaccinated?

Some high risk industries are likely to require customers to be vaccinated or where they cannot be vaccinated, subject to heightened measures such as quarantine and/or testing. Qantas CEO Alan Joyce recently told A Current Affair, “We are looking at changing our terms and conditions to say, for international travellers, that we will ask people to have a vaccination before they can get on the aircraft.” Qantas is expected to release its position middle-to-end 2021 on domestic and international travel.

For employers in high risk industries, it’s important to maintain a conversation with employees and consult an industrial relations specialist if your workplace intends to require vaccinations for employees and/or customers.

FBT 2021: Tax & Employee Benefits

Fringe benefits tax (FBT) is one of Australia’s most disliked taxes because it’s cumbersome and generates a lot of paperwork. The COVID-19 lockdowns have added another layer of complexity as many work patterns and behaviours changed.

A fringe benefit is a ‘payment’ to an employee or an associate (an associate is someone related to you such as a spouse, child or even a friend), but in a different form to salary or wages. A benefit might be as simple as hosting a work Christmas party, providing car parking, using a work vehicle, or providing the goods or services of the business at a reduced rate to what the public pay.

If your business is not already registered for FBT, it’s important to understand if fringe benefits have been provided. Generally, the ATO will look closely at unregistered employers and where there are mismatches in data.

With the FBT year ending on 31 March, we look at the key issues and the Australian Taxation Office’s (ATO) hotspots.

What is exempt from FBT?

Certain benefits are excluded from the FBT rules if they are provided primarily for use in the employee’s employment. These include:

  • Portable electronic devices (e.g., laptop, ipad, printers, GPS, etc.,). Larger businesses are limited to the purchase or reimbursement of one portable electronic device for each employee per FBT year;
  • A handbag, briefcase or satchel to carry items you are required to use and carry for work, such as laptops, tablets, work papers or diaries. Be warned that if you are using these bags for a mix of personal and work use, then the use needs to be apportioned and will not be fully exempt from FBT. The ATO is not going to pay for your Gucci bag even if you do throw your ipad into it on occasion.
  • Tools of trade.

Also, if the item or service provided to the employee is less than $300 and is a one-off, it’s generally classed as a minor benefit and exempt from fringe benefits tax.


The ATO has changed how it will approach FBT compliance this year because of the impact of COVID-19 on work patterns and conditions.

Emergency assistance such as flights and accommodation – emergency assistance to provide immediate relief to employees because the employee is at risk of being adversely affected by COVID-19 will generally not be subject to FBT. This might include:

  • Expenses incurred relocating an employee, including paying for flights home to Australia.
  • Expenses incurred for food and temporary accommodation if an employee cannot travel due to restrictions (domestic, interstate or intrastate).
  • Benefits provided that allow an employee to self-isolate or quarantine.
  • Transporting or paying for an employee’s transport expenses including car hire and transport to temporary accommodation.

For fly-in fly-out workers, this includes temporary accommodation and meals where they were unable to return home because of border or travel restrictions.






Health care – Providing flu vaccinations to employees is generally exempt from FBT because it is work-related preventative health care. However, health care treatment is only exempt from FBT if it is provided to your employees at your workplace or adjacent to your worksite. The cost of ongoing medical costs are generally not exempt.

Company cars – a company car garaged at an employee’s home will generally attract FBT. However, this FBT year, many company carparks and places of business were closed. As a result, the ATO has stated that for employers using the operating cost method, if the “car has not been driven at all during the period it has been garaged at home, or has only been driven briefly for the purpose of maintaining the car, we will accept that you don’t hold the car for the purpose of providing fringe benefits to your employee.” But, you will need to maintain odometer readings that show the car has not been used.

If the car was used, fringe benefits generally applies. However, if the car was used for business purposes then this use reduces the taxable value. If the car was only used for business, the taxable value may be reduced to zero.

Logbooks – COVID-19 is likely to have impacted on driving patterns and the ATO have made some concessions where the 12 week log book period was interrupted.

If you are already using the logbook method and have an existing logbook in place, you can still rely on this logbook. However, you must keep odometer records for the year to show how much the car has been driven during the year including during any lockdown period.

If this is the first year you have used a logbook, you still need to keep an accurate 12 week logbook. However, if COVID-19 impacted driving patterns during that 12 weeks, then the ATO will allow you to adjust the use indicated in the logbook to account for the change in driving patterns.



Not-for-profit salary packaging – Not-for-profit employers often provide salary-packaged meal entertainment to employees to take advantage of the exempt or rebatable cap. For the FBT year ending 31 March 2021, the ATO has stated that they will not look into these arrangements where meals are provided by a supplier that was authorised as a meal entertainment provider as at 1 March 2020.

Cancellation fees – non-refundable costs for cancelled events are exempt from FBT unless the employee paid for the event themselves and was reimbursed by you. That is, if the employer paid for the event then the cancellation fee is the employer’s obligation as no benefit was provided. If the employee paid for the event, the cancellation fee is the employee’s obligation that has been reimbursed. It really depends on who the arrangement was between.

ATO ‘red flags’

One of the easiest ways for the ATO to pick up on problem areas is where there are mismatches in the information provided to the ATO. Common problem areas include:

Entertainment deductions with no corresponding fringe benefit – A simple way for the ATO to pick up on a problem is when an employer claims a deduction for expensive entertainment expenses – meals out, tickets to cricket matches, etc., – but there is not a corresponding recognition of the fringe benefit. Entertainment expenses are generally not deductible and no GST credits can be claimed unless the expenses are subject to FBT.

If your business uses the ‘actual’ method for FBT purposes and the value of the benefits provided is less than $300 then there might not be any FBT implications. This is because benefits provided to a client are not subject to FBT and minor benefits provided to employees (i.e., value of less than $300) on an infrequent and irregular basis are generally exempt from FBT. However, no deductions should be claimed for the entertainment and no GST credits would normally be available either.

If the business uses the 50/50 method, then 50% of the meal entertainment expenses would be subject to FBT (the minor benefits exemption would not apply). As a result, 50% of the expenses would be deductible and the company would be able to claim 50% of the GST credits.

Employee contributions reduce fringe benefits tax but not recognised in income tax return – Where employee contributions reduce the amount of fringe benefits tax payable (for example where an employee makes a contribution relating to a car fringe benefit), a corresponding amount needs to be recognised in the income tax return of the employer.


The Pandemic Productivity Gap

A recent article published in the Harvard Business Review by Bain & Co suggests that the pandemic has widened the productivity gap between top performing companies and others stating, “Some have remained remarkably productive during the Covid-era, capitalizing on the latest technology to collaborate effectively and efficiently. Most, however, are less productive now than they were 12 months ago. The key difference between the best and the rest is how successful they were at managing the scarce time, talent, and energy of their workforces before Covid-19.”

Atlassian data scientists also crunched the numbers on the intensity and length of work days of software users during the pandemic. The results found that workdays were longer with a general inability to separate work and home life, and workers were working longer hours (predominantly because during lockdowns, there is no set start and end of the workday routine). Interestingly, the average length of a day for Australian workers is shorter than our international peers by up to an hour pre pandemic. Australia’s average working day is around 6.8 active hours whereas the US is close to 7.2.

However, working longer does not mean working more productively. Atlassian’s research shows that while the length of the working day increased and the intensity of work increased earlier and later in the day, intensity during “normal” hours generally decreased.

So, how do we measure productivity? Bain & Co suggests:

  • The best companies have minimised wasted time and kept employees focused; the rest have not. Those that were able to collaborate effectively with team members and customers pre pandemic fared the best. Poor collaboration and inefficient work practices reduce productivity.
  • The best have capitalised on changing work patterns to access difference-making talent (they acquire, develop, team, and lead scarce, difference-making talent).
  • The best have found ways to engage and inspire their employees. Research shows an engaged employee is 45% more productive than one that is merely a satisfied worker.

The productivity gap was always there. The pandemic merely brought the gap into stark contrast.

The material and contents provided in this publication are informative in nature only.  It is not intended to be advice and you should not act specifically on the basis of this information alone.  If expert assistance is required, professional advice should be obtained.



How to sell your business

We’re often asked the best way to sell a business. There are two key components at play in the sale of a business; structuring the transaction and positioning the business to the market. Both elements are important and can significantly impact your result.

Structuring the transaction covers things such as pricing the business, the terms and conditions attaching to the sale, key terms in the contract, and ensuring the transaction structure is as tax effective as possible. Much of the structuring is about ensuring the vendors secure the most efficient and effective outcome from the sale. It is about maximising vendor position.

Positioning the business for sale is all about ensuring that you achieve a sale and that maximises your price.  It covers areas such as ensuring there are no hurdles within the business that will limit its saleability, identifying the competitive position of the business within its market segment, ensuring that operating performance is as good as it can be, and that the business benchmarks well in its market. Positioning also includes identifying the best time to take the business to the market, how to take it to the market, and who the most likely buyers will be.

Positioning is about doing everything needed to maximise the probability of a sale occurring, whereas structuring is about getting the best outcome from a transaction once it has occurred. A lot of people make the mistake of spending most of their energy on the structuring of the transaction. It is important but it only becomes important if the sale is achieved.

To do this, you need to get an objective assessment of how the business compares in its market, its competitive position, and what, if any, impediments to sale exist – all the things a buyer will look at and look for when they assess your business. Most buyers believe that we are currently in a buyer’s market and will try to drive down price expectations.  Whether or not you are in a buyer’s market depends on your industry segment but regardless of this, you are in a competitive market. Buyers may be comparing your business with similar businesses but also opportunities in other industry segments. Securing a sale at the best possible price is about having your business positioned for sale.  Preparation time is needed to achieve this so talk to us well in advance of putting your business on the market.



The Final Stage Of JobKeeper And How To Access It

The impact of COVID-19 has been felt very differently from region to region. Fortunes vary wildly between business operators subject to ongoing lockdowns and trading impediments to those benefiting from the “new normal”.

For those severely impacted by COVID-19, JobKeeper might be available. The third and final phase of JobKeeper started on 4 January and runs through until 28 March 2021. To receive JobKeeper, employers need to have experienced a sufficient downturn (a 30% threshold applies to most entities) in their actual GST turnover in the December 2020 quarter compared to the same period in 2019 – although alternative tests exist.

The payment rate for employers is $1,000 per fortnight per employee or business participant who worked 80 hours or more over a specific 28 day period, or $650 per fortnight per employee or business participant for those who worked less than 80 hours in the relevant period – a reduction from previous JobKeeper payment periods.

Assessing eligibility, managing the decline in turnover test, calculating GST turnover for the decline in turnover test, and managing the 80 working hours requirement for the differential payment rates can all be complex.  We’ve outlined a few of the key issues for employers in need of relief:

My business did not previously qualify for JobKeeper. Can I access it now?

Your business can potentially access JobKeeper for the period between 4 January 2021 and 28 March 2021 even if it didn’t qualify for JobKeeper for the period between 28 September 2020 and 3 January 2021 or for the original JobKeeper scheme period that ended on 27 September 2020.

The fact that you have not previously enrolled in JobKeeper or met the eligibility conditions prior to the start of the latest phase of the JobKeeper scheme should not prevent you from accessing JobKeeper from 4 January 2021.  For example, if you could not pass the decline in turnover test for the September 2020 quarter this does not automatically prevent you from being able to access JobKeeper for the period between 4 January 2021 and 28 March 2021 as long as your business can pass the decline in turnover test for the December 2020 quarter.

We have been in JobKeeper previously. Do my employees need to complete a new nomination form for JobKeeper from 4 January 2021?

Employees should not need to provide you with a new enrolment form if they have previously provided a valid nomination to you. You should ensure that you have a copy of the original form on file and a copy of the notification that you sent to the employee confirming that their details were provided to the ATO and advising them of the payment rate that applies to them.



What’s included in GST Turnover for the decline in turnover test?

To access JobKeeper, employers need to satisfy a decline in turnover test. The decline in turnover test for JobKeeper from 4 January 2021 compares actual GST turnover in the December 2020 quarter (October 2020, November 2020 and December 2020) to the same period in 2019 (alternative tests are available in some instances where this comparison is not appropriate).

Understandably, we’re receiving lots of questions about what is included in GST turnover and how it is calculated.

In general, if your business is registered for GST you must use the same method that is used for GST reporting purposes. For example, if your business is registered for GST on a cash basis then a cash basis needs to be used to calculate current GST turnover for the purpose of the JobKeeper decline in turnover test for the December 2020 quarter.

Your GST turnover includes proceeds from the sale of capital assets, such as property, equipment or licenses, unless the sale is input taxed. Current GST turnover includes taxable and GST-free supplies, but should exclude input taxed supplies such as residential rental income and financial supplies like dividends, interest etc. JobKeeper and ATO cash flow boost payments should be excluded from the calculation along with other payments that don’t represent consideration for a supply made by the business such as certain State based grants.

If your business has received payments in advance, then you will normally need to recognise these payments as part of the GST turnover calculation, even if the goods or services have not been provided to the customer yet. For example, if your business accounts for GST on a cash basis then you need to recognise the payment for GST purposes as it is received and include it in your GST turnover calculation, even if the services haven’t been provided. There are some special rules where security deposits apply to defer the GST liability but these rules are reasonably limited in their application.

And, if your business is part of a GST group, each entity needs to calculate its GST turnover as if it were not part of the group. That is, supplies made by another group member should not be included in GST turnover for the purposes of the decline in turnover test.

When I stood down my employees, they started working for someone else to get by. Can they still receive JobKeeper?

To access JobKeeper, employees need to have been either full-time, part-time or long terms casuals of your business on either 1 March 2020 or 1 July 2020. If the employment relationship remains intact (their employment has not been terminated and they haven’t accessed JobKeeper from another business), then the fact that the employee is performing some work for another entity doesn’t necessarily prevent ongoing access to JobKeeper with you, their original employer.

Of course, the employee can only receive JobKeeper from one employer and there are a number of eligibility conditions that need to be satisfied.


Sole Trader Granted Access To JobKeeper With Backdated ABN

A sole trader who was able to backdate his ABN has won access to JobKeeper payments in a recent case before the Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT).

To be eligible to access JobKeeper as a business participant (for example, as a sole trader), the rules require a business to have an active ABN on 12 March 2020.  The rules also provide the Tax Commissioner with the discretion to allow further time for an entity to register for an ABN.

In this case, a sole trader, Mr Apted was an expert property valuer who had been in business for himself in various structures since 2012. In 2014, he set up as a sole trader and registered for an ABN and GST. In 2018, he decided to retire, cancelling his GST registration and later relinquishing his ABN with effect from 4 June 2018 – although he was aware that he had the flexibility to start up again if the need arose or his expertise was required.

In June 2019, former colleagues encouraged him to accept new work and he was contacted soon after by a potential client who engaged him to provide his valuation services in September 2019. Mr Apted made it known that he was available for referral work.

Mr Apted stated that he was unaware that he needed to reactivate his ABN as he believed that an ABN was only required if he intended to register for GST. Given he did not expect to earn over the GST threshold of $75,000, he did not see this as necessary. His clients also did not withhold tax from payments to him as required when payments are made to a supplier without a valid ABN.



On 31 March 2020, Mr Apted applied and had his ABN reinstated. Then on 20 April 2020, he applied for JobKeeper but this was denied as he did not have a valid ABN on 12 March 2020. In June, Mr Apted phoned the Registrar of the Australian Business Register seeking to have the date of effect of his ABN corrected to align with his resumption of trade. The Registrar subsequently adjusted the date of effect of the ABN to 1 July 2019. With this adjustment, Mr Apted believed he had an active ABN at 12 March 2020 required by the JobKeeper integrity rules.

The Tax Commissioner however did not accept the backdated ABN as an “active” ABN and declined to use his discretion to allow Mr Apted access to JobKeeper. However, the Administrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT) found:

“We are satisfied the applicant is the kind of person who was intended to benefit from the Jobkeeper scheme. While his business was small and his income irregular, he still satisfies all of the eligibility criteria … There is nothing to be achieved by denying him access to the payments in order to make a point about the desirability of obtaining an ABN.”

 The AAT set aside the Commissioner’s decision in favour of Mr Apted directing the ATO to enrol Mr Apted in JobKeeper for the relevant period.

A statement from Holding Redlich, the legal firm representing Mr Apted says, “Small businesses that have been refused JobKeeper might now qualify for JobKeeper – and be entitled to make claims back until the beginning of the scheme in April 2020.”

The ATO has lodged an appeal with the Federal Court of Australia in the Apted case and has stated that it will not pre-emptively review decisions of eligibility until the outcome of the appeal has been handed down.

Giving further hope to those who had previously been denied access to JobKeeper under a strict interpretation of the rules is the recent report from the Inspector General of Taxation (IGT). JobKeeper and the Cashflow boost require that the business had some business income in the 2018-19 income year and notified the ATO of this by 12 March 2020 or made some supplies connected with Australia in a tax period that started on or after 1 July 2018 and ended before 12 March 2020 and notified the ATO of the supplies (e.g., on an activity statement) by 12 March 2020.

In her report, the IGT has made it clear that, “…for the purposes of the [JobKeeper] and [Boosting Cash Flow] support measures, a taxable supply can be made where an entity makes or acquires a financial interest, for example, by opening a bank account, as this constitutes the making of a financial supply. Such a supply might have been made during the commencement of the business, well before the business had made its first sale.”

For any business seeking redress on a JobKeeper or Cashflow boost eligibility decision, strict timeframes apply. Despite the ATO’s reticence to engage on these issues until the outcome of the Federal Court is known, it is important to lodge the necessary applications or objections to ensure the window of opportunity is not missed.



  • An ABN backdated by the Business Registrar may meet the JobKeeper eligibility criteria
  • Simply opening a bank account and advising the ATO of the account (for example when registering for GST) in the relevant time period (by 31 December 2019 for quarterly or 29 February 2020 for monthly taxpayers) might meet the eligibility test to make a supply in Australia – even if the business had not made any sales.


Winding-up: Simplifying small business insolvency

On 1 January 2021, new laws came into effect that introduce a new, simplified debt restructuring and liquidation framework for small business.

Drawing on key features of the Chapter 11 bankruptcy model in the United States, the new system aims to speed up the insolvency process, reduce costs and where possible, restructure to help the business survive. Where survival is not possible, it’s hoped that the quicker insolvency process will deliver greater returns for creditors and employees.

Under previous insolvency laws, the insolvency process treated all businesses the same regardless of size. The new laws step away from the ‘one size fits all’ model. The simplified debt restructuring and liquidation framework is available to incorporated entities with liabilities of less than $1 million (around 76% of insolvencies are businesses with less than 20 employees) with non-complex debt. The liquidation framework also requires that a company is up to date with its entitlements and tax obligations.

The new laws are intended to help manage the tide of insolvencies expected now that the temporary insolvency related relief for financially distressed businesses has ended (the COVID-19 relief measures which protected directors from insolvent trading and raised the threshold for action by creditors, ended on 31 December 2020.) There is no question that the temporary measures in tandem with the stimulus measures such as JobKeeper have kept some ‘zombie’ businesses afloat. In November 2020, 306 businesses entered external administration compared to 748 in November 2019. In general, the number of insolvencies has dropped by around 200 to 300 each month since March 2020 compared to 2019 figures.


Debt restructuring

For financially distressed but viable companies, simplified debt restructuring is available. Under this process, the directors resolve that the company is insolvent, or is likely to become insolvent at some future time, and that a small business restructuring practitioner should be appointed. Once a practitioner has been appointed, the directors generally have 20 days to develop a plan that sets out an approach to repay the company’s existing debts. Only the company directors can propose a debt restructuring plan to the company’s creditors and the creditors have the opportunity to vote on the plan electronically or virtually (previously creditors had to be physically present or appoint a proxy).

During this time, the company directors retain control of the business – which is very different to the previous laws where the administrator took control of the company during voluntary administration.

To prevent the new laws being abused by phoenixing, a company is not eligible to use the debt restructuring process if a director of the company or the company itself has previously been through this process or the simplified liquidation process. The new laws are also not available where the company has already entered into an external administration process.

Streamlined insolvency

If a company is not viable (the company will not be able to pay its debts in full within 12 months), the directors can resolve to voluntarily wind up the company and access the streamlined insolvency process. Once the resolution has been passed, the directors have five business days to provide the appointed liquidator with a report on the company’s business affairs and a declaration that the company meets the eligibility criteria to access the simplified liquidation process.

If the liquidator agrees that the company qualifies for the simplified liquidation process, the creditors are advised of the process that will be adopted. The creditors can reject the approach if 25% or more by value, oppose the process.

Streamlined insolvency is designed for companies with relatively simple affairs and is limited to those that have liabilities under $1 million and are up to date with their taxation obligations. It uses the existing insolvency framework but simplifies the interaction with creditors and ASIC. For example, outside of the simplified system, the liquidator may convene a creditor’s meeting at any time to keep creditors up to date, find out the creditor’s wishes, or to approve the liquidator’s fees. The simplified system removes the obligation for a liquidator to convene these meetings with communication managed electronically. And, under the simplified systems the oversight of creditors is limited, creditors for example cannot appoint a committee of inspection to monitor the conduct of the liquidation.

There are strict timings that apply to the insolvency process. If you are concerned that your business will not be able to meet its obligations, please contact us as soon as possible and we will review the situation for you. Where assistance is required, we can refer you to a qualified insolvency or small business restructuring practitioner.

JobKeeper: The next steps

The first tranche of JobKeeper ended on 27 September 2020. We look at the issues for those seeking to qualify for the second tranche of JobKeeper and for those no longer eligible.

Wrapping up JobKeeper

If your business is no longer eligible for JobKeeper payments, there are a few things you need to do:

  • Advise your employees and business participant. For anyone receiving JobKeeper payments from your business, you should advise them in writing that the business is no longer eligible, JobKeeper payments ceased on 27 September 2020, and their pay will revert to the conditions that apply under their employment agreement. This is particularly important for those who have been receiving top-up payments.
  • Ensure payroll adjusts – Double check your payroll to ensure that top-up JobKeeper payments have been removed from 28 September 2020 onwards.

Make sure you keep all of your records relating to JobKeeper including your calculations and rationale for the decline in turnover test, your employee JobKeeper nomination forms, and any other records for at least five years.

What’s the 10% decline in turnover test?

The 10% decline in turnover test is a test that enables employers previously participating in JobKeeper to continue to use the JobKeeper provisions (with some modifications) under the Fair Work Act. These employers are ‘legacy employers’. This test does not impact on your business’s eligibility to receive JobKeeper payments, it only impacts on an employer’s use of the JobKeeper provisions under the Fair Work Act.

If an employer qualifies under the 10% test, they can:

  • Issue JobKeeper enabling stand down directions (with some changes)
  • Issue JobKeeper enabling directions in relation to employees’ duties and locations of work
  • Make agreements with employees to work on different days or at different times (with some changes).

Employers can continue to utilise the JobKeeper provisions if they:

  • Previously participated in the JobKeeper scheme but no longer qualify (or choose not to participate) from 28 September 2020, and
  • Can demonstrate at least a 10% decline in turnover for a relevant quarter and get a certificate from an eligible financial service provider (small business employers can make a statutory declaration).

To meet the turnover test, a legacy employer needs to demonstrate at least a 10% decline in actual GST turnover for the quarter in 2020, when compared to the same quarter in 2019. See Legacy employers on the Fair Work Ombudsman’s website.


Is my business eligible for JobKeeper payments from 28 September?

Existing JobKeeper participants need to pass the extended decline in turnover test to continue to receive JobKeeper payments on behalf of employees. This extended test looks at your actual GST turnover for the September 2020 quarter (for JobKeeper payments between 28 September to 3 January 2021), and again for the December 2020 quarter (for payments between 4 January 2021 to 28 March 2021).

To pass the extended decline in turnover test, your business will need to show an actual decline in turnover between the September 2020 quarter (July, August, September 2020), and the same period in 2019 by 30% (15% for ACNC registered charities and 50% for large businesses).

My business has not received JobKeeper previously. Can we get it now?

If your business passes the eligibility criteria, you can access JobKeeper when you need it for your eligible employees. For JobKeeper, your business needs to pass the eligibility tests for the period you are seeking to claim JobKeeper payments.

My business can’t pass the decline in turnover test because we were impacted by a natural disaster/drought in 2019

Special rules exist to ensure that businesses trading (or partially trading) in a region impacted by natural disasters or drought in 2019 are not detrimentally impacted when calculating the decline in turnover tests. Assuming the drought or disaster impacted your GST turnover, the alternative test enables you to use a period in the year immediately preceding the year in which the drought or natural disaster was declared for the decline in turnover test comparison. This is, if your business was impacted by drought/disaster in the September quarter of 2019, you can use the September quarter of 2018 for your comparison period. If 2018 was also a drought/disaster zone, you can keep going back until the first year preceding the declaration of drought/disaster.

To use this test, your region must be subject to a formal declaration of drought or disaster (for example from Government) or have been publicly identified by an agency such as the Bureau of Meteorology.

My business fails the test because its turnover is ‘lumpy’

If your business has ‘lumpy’ or irregular turnover, there is an alternative decline in turnover test that you might be able to apply. This test only applies if your GST turnover is irregular, like what often occurs in the building and construction industry, and not simply a seasonal variation. To understand if your turnover is irregular, look at the 12 months before the test period and divide the 12 months into 3 month periods. If the lowest GST turnover for any of these 3 month periods is no more than 50% of the highest of the 3 month periods, then the test can be applied as long as your business’s turnover is not cyclical. Alternatively, you can look at the 12 months before 1 March 2020 instead of the 12 months immediately before the test period.

If your GST turnover is irregular you can compare your current GST turnover for the test period with the average current GST turnover for the 12 months immediately before the applicable test period or 1 March 2020, multiplied by 3.

My business is a new business without a 2019 comparison period. Can it receive JobKeeper payments?

If the business is a new business that started trading after 1 March 2020, the business will not be eligible for JobKeeper payments (although there are special rules for not-for-profit or registered charities in some circumstances).

If your business started trading before 1 March 2020 but after 1 July 2020, there are alternative tests you can use to determine whether your business is eligible for JobKeeper payments from 28 September 2020:

  • Comparing the actual GST turnover for the test period with the turnover of the 3 months immediately before 1 March 2020 (for example, comparing the September quarter 2020 with the 3 months prior to 1 March 2020).
  • Comparing actual GST turnover for the test period (for example, the September quarter 2020) with the average turnover since the entity commenced (using whole months).


What happens if a business restructure (or sale or acquisition) impacts on your numbers?

An alternative decline in turnover test is available where there has been a disposal or acquisition of part of the business, or restructure in the business, or combinations of those, and this changed the entity’s current GST turnover.

The alternative test compares the GST turnover for the test period with the current GST turnover for the relevant month immediately after the disposal, acquisition or restructure, multiplied by 3. If there is not a whole month after the last acquisition, disposal or restructure, and before the turnover test period, then the month immediately before the turnover test period is used.

Where there have been multiple disposals, acquisitions or restructures, you can use the whole month immediately after any of the disposals, acquisitions or restructures, multiplied by 3 for the alternative test.


What happens if fast pre COVID-19 growth makes the comparison period unrealistic?

If your business was experiencing strong growth before the pandemic hit, your comparison period numbers can be skewed. This alternative test is for entities with substantial pre COVID-19 growth. First you need to test if your growth is considered substantial. That is, GST turnover increased by:

  • by 50% or more in the 12 months before the turnover test period or before 1 March 2020, or
  • by 25% or more in the 6 months before the turnover test period or before 1 March 2020, or
  • by 12.5% or more in the 3 months before the turnover test period or before 1 March 2020.

If there is substantial growth and you used the period immediately before the turnover test period to determine whether there is a substantial increase in turnover, then the alternative test compares GST turnover for the test period (for example, the September 2020 quarter) with turnover for the 3 months immediately before the test period.

If you are using the period immediately before 1 March 2020 to determine whether there is a substantial increase in turnover, then the alternative test compares GST turnover for the test period (for example, the September 2020 quarter) with turnover for the 3 months immediately before 1 March 2020.

I am a sole trader (or partnership) impacted by illness, injury or leave

For sole traders and small partnerships (4 partners or fewer) with no staff, your income is often impacted by your ability to work. If your comparison period is impacted by illness, injury or leave, you can use the month immediately before the month with sickness, injury or leave is used, then multiplied by 3.

Does the business need to re-enrol?

Your business does not need to re-enrol if it is already receiving JobKeeper payments. Employers continuing to receive JobKeeper payments will need to:

  • Advise the ATO of the payment tiers of eligible employees (or your business participant), and
  • Advise your eligible employees of the payment tier that is applicable to them.

Make sure you keep records of your calculations for the decline in turnover test, and the JobKeeper payment tiers for employees.

Identifying the JobKeeper payment rates

If your business is eligible for JobKeeper from 28 September 2020, you will need to identify all of your eligible employees and the JobKeeper payment rate applicable to them.

From 28 September 2020, the JobKeeper payment rate will reduce and split into a higher and lower rate based on the number of hours the employee worked in a specific 28 day period prior to 1 March 2020 or 1 July 2020.

For eligible employees who have been employed since 1 March 2020, employers need to choose the reference period that provides the best outcome for the employees. For many employers, this will be the pre COVID-19, 1 March 2020 reference date. For eligible employees employed after 1 March 2020, use the pay periods prior to 1 July 2020.

If the pay cycle is longer than 28 days, a pro-rata calculation needs to be completed to determine the average hours worked and on paid leave across an equivalent 28 day period. For example, if the relevant monthly pay cycle has 31 days, you take the total hours for the month and multiply this by 28/31.

Speaking to a MyBusiness podcast, ATO Deputy Commissioner James O’Halloran said the ATO is, “…looking for what is a natural record or support that does demonstrate that effort of active participation in a business on behalf of businesses and in terms of employees on what basis the hours have been done.”


What happens if the employee’s hours were different to normal in the reference period?

Alternative tests are available where:

  • The reference period is not typical of the employee’s hours or you use a rostering system and there is no typical pattern in a 28 day period – use an earlier 28 day period or multiple 28 day periods that more accurately represent the employee’s typical arrangements. That is, you select the next 28 day period before 1 March 2020 or 1 July 2020 that represents the employee’s typical employment pattern. For workers that don’t have a typical pattern because of a rostering system like fly-in-fly-out workers, an average of the hours worked over the employee’s rostering schedule and proportionally adjusted over 28 days can be used to work out a typical 28-day period.
  • The employee started work during the reference period. Use a forward-looking alternative test. In these circumstances, use the pay cycle immediately on or after 1 March 2020 or 1 July 2020. For employers with fortnightly or weekly pay cycles, you must use consecutive weeks. Where an employee was stood down, use the first 28 day period starting on the first day of a pay cycle on or after 1 March 2020 or on or after 1 July 2020 in which they were not stood down.

What happens if the employee’s salary is not linked to hours?

Some employees will automatically qualify for the higher JobKeeper payment rate. To qualify for the higher rate, these employees: were paid at least $1,500 in the reference period; were required to work at least 80 hours under an industrial award, enterprise agreement or contract; or, it is reasonable to assume that they worked at least 80 hours during the applicable period.

What about directors and partners in a partnership?

Business participants (sole traders, the self-employed with an ABN, or one partner in a partnership, beneficiary of a trust, or director/shareholder), must use the month of February 2020 (the whole 29 days) as their test period. The test looks at the number of hours you were actively engaged in the business  – actively operating the business or undertaking specific tasks in business development and planning, regulatory compliance or similar activities.

Other than sole traders, a business participant must provide a declaration to the business entity confirming their hours worked over the reference period. Sole traders need confirm details with the ATO.

Where February 2020 was not typical, you can use the next typical 29 day period, or if you commenced during February, March 2020.

My employer is no longer eligible for JobKeeper. Can I receive JobKeeper from another employer?

Employees and business participants can normally only have one nominated employer for the JobKeeper scheme (ever). If your nominated employer is no longer eligible for JobKeeper payments, you cannot be a nominated employee of another employer. The main exception to this is where the individual ceased to be employed or actively engaged in the business (as a business participant) of the original entity after 1 March 2020 but before 1 July 2020. They must also have met the conditions to be treated as an eligible employee of the new employer at 1 July 2020.


Preventing a tsunami of insolvencies

The Government has stepped in to prevent a wave of insolvencies when the COVID-19 support measures run their course in December 2020.

Temporary insolvency and bankruptcy protections are in place until 31 December 2020 to enable businesses to trade through the pandemic. The measures provide:

  • A temporary increase in the threshold at which creditors can issue a statutory demand on a company (from $2,000 to $20,000) and the time companies have to respond to statutory demands they receive (21 days to 6 months);
  • A temporary increase in the threshold for a creditor to initiate bankruptcy proceedings (from $5,000 to $20,000), an increase in the time period for debtors to respond to a bankruptcy notice (21 days to 6 months), and extending the period of protection a debtor receives after making a declaration of intention to present a debtor’s petition;
  • Temporary relief for directors from any personal liability for trading while insolvent; and
  • Flexibility in the Corporations Act 2001 to provide targeted relief for companies from provisions of the Act to deal with unforeseen events that arise as a result of the Coronavirus health crisis.

Between March and July 2020, there was a 46% decrease in the number of companies that have gone into external administration compared to the same period in 2019.

Anticipating a wave of insolvencies in early 2021, the Government has moved to streamline insolvency laws to enable small business to either restructure or efficiently wind up. There are three key elements to the reforms:

  • A new formal debt restructuring process for companies that will enable a business to keep trading under the control of its owners while a debt restructuring plan is developed and voted on by creditors.
  • A new, simplified liquidation pathway for small businesses to allow faster and lower-cost liquidation.

The measures will be available to businesses with liabilities of less than $1 million. You can find further information on the proposed insolvency reforms here.

In Australia, the insolvency laws currently do not differentiate between large and small businesses. Everyone goes through a similar process. For small business, the complexity and the cost of adhering to the current insolvency system often leaves little for creditors, makes it difficult to restructure, and places control of the business in the hands of an administrator. These reforms should help simplify the process.


Quote of the month

“Fight for the things that you care about, but do it in a way that will lead others to join you.”

US Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg